“For the kingdom of God consists not in spoken words but in power.” (1 Cor 4:20-21)
               Jojo M. Fung, SJ

          The call for more effective approaches to the evangelizing mission of the church in Asia has been a perennial challenge and concern of the Asian bishops and theologians, more so for the local churches inserted in the web of everyday relationship with the marginalized and believers of the different cultures and religions. Whatever the new approaches, the effectiveness of the approaches depends ultimately on the church manifesting the sacred power of God’s Spirit in the perennial mission of proclaiming the sustainability of life with greater dignity and justice in the human and earth communities. This life is only sustainable when the human community learns to uphold with awe and reverence the sacredness of all lives, beings and all persons created inviolable in the sight of God.

1.A Way Forward Bold and New
           This call becomes all the more urgent after the meeting of the appointed advisors of the Secretariat for Ecumenism and Interreligious Relationship who met in Rome from September 6-8, 2010. The shared insights of the secretariat is that “theologically we need to explore new approaches to evangelization and missiology, taking account of Vatican II perspectives as well as our recent experiences and relationships with those of other faiths.” In addition, this call urges that the new approaches draw their inspiration from the kind of spirituality that focuses more on relationship rather than doctrines, relationships with others across religious frontiers that “must be personally embodied, since personal witness is a prerequisite for our credibility.”
           Pope Benedict XVI has added his papal weight to the call for effective proclamation of the Word. In his Post Synodal Apostolic Exhortation "Verbum Domini" published on Thursday November 11, 2010, the pope highlights the need to strengthen the missionary mindedness within the Church. The Pope writes: "The Church must go out to meet each person in the strength of the Spirit and continue her prophetic defense of people's right and freedom to the word of God while constantly seeking out the most effective ways of proclaiming that word, even at the risk of persecution. The Church feels duty-bound to proclaim to every man and woman the word that saves.”
           What are the more effective approaches to evangelization and missiology that needs to be articulated? What is constitutive of the effective approaches and how do these approaches articulate with the proclamation of the word in today’s context, given the rapid changes, not just in Asia, but in Arab world and around the world?
             I believe “crossing over” of frontiers to experience God’s omnipresence already active in the other cultures and religion that renders the whole of God’s creation sacred is constitutive of the effective approaches to evangelizing mission of the church in Asia. This “crossing over” is still one of the most challenging ways for take mission forward in Asia so that the evangelizing church becomes first evangelized in Asia. First of all, this “crossing over” enjoins the church to go beyond its own confines to encounter the cultural and religious other across the frontiers and experience the omnipresence of God. Second, evangelization calls for “crossing over” of the cultural frontiers in order to discover and experience the God who is present and active in the life-worlds and customs of the peoples of other cultures. Third, evangelization calls for “crossing over” the many diverse and different religious frontiers, motivated by the church’s teachings, to discover and recognize that God’s omnipresence precedes the church. Fourth, evangelization involves initiating and nurturing personal and communal relationship that respect the “otherness of the other” because Jesus the “Relational Other” is already present in the midst of the believers of other faiths. Fifth, evangelization calls for unleashing the sacred power latent in the religiosity of the marginalized and to awaken them to their liberative role in the new order of God’s reign. Last of all, in a world desecrated by global capitalism, evangelization calls for the promotion of sacred sustainability for the survival of humankind and our planetary home earth.

2.  Crossing Over: Doing Mission in Humility
                The call to undertake a “crossing over” was alluded to in the report of the above-mentioned secretariat which states that “less attention today seems to be given to relationships with others across religious frontiers, even as such relationships are more urgently needed in a time of identity politics and fundamentalisms.” To this must added the need of fostering of cross-ethnic-religious relationships based on the widespread of anti-government mass protest movements based on people-power politics across the globe, as adequately demonstrated by the outbreak of unrest and uprising in the Arab world.
              The “crossing over” is described as across different frontiers when frontier is a metaphor which Pope Benedict explained to mean particularly the need “to reach the geographical and spiritual places where others do not reach and find it difficult to reach.” This “crossing over” is guided by two Ignatian theological principles: (a) that “God's action is antecedent to ours” and (b) that “all women and men are our concern for dialogue and for proclamation because our mission is that of the Church: to discover Jesus Christ where we have not noticed him before and to reveal him where he has not been seen before. In other words, we look to “find God in all things.” The “pull-factor” of this approach to evanglization draws its inspiration from the Ignatian spirituality which alerts us to the God whose omnipresence is the sacred sustaining and liberative power at work in the world, in the diverse cultures, histories, societies and relationships outside the confines of the church. This experience of the omnipresent God is in Asia integral to the experience of the God of Jesus Christ within the church .
                 2.1. Beyond the church’s own confines. In the Asian context of multi-religiosities, the call to “cross over” the different frontiers requires the church to recognize that God’s Spirit beckons the church to go beyond its own ecclesial confines. The willingness to respond to this call is an act of humility by which the church acknowledges, recognizes and respects the wealth of cultural and religious wisdom in the diverse traditions of the ancient civilizations of Asia. This act of humility, exemplified by Jesus in stooping down to receive the baptism of John the Baptist (Mark 1:9-11; Mt 3:13-17; Lk 3:21-22) is an imperative pathway for the church to walk down and drink from the wells of Asian diverse religiosities and wisdom traditions.

                 In Pieris’ opinion, the Asian church needs to heed the “prophetic imperative to immerse oneself in the baptismal waters of Asian religions that predates Christianity.”Only in this act of humility is the church an authoritative voice to be heard by believers and an authentic and credible sign of salvation in Asia.

The local church in Asia needs yet to be “initiated” into the pre-Christian traditions under the tutelage of our ancient gurus, or it will continue to be an ecclesiastical complex full of “power” but lacking in “authority.” It is only in the Jordan of Asian religiousness that it will be acknowledged as a voice worth of being heard by all “Hear ye him.

The mission crisis is solved only when the church is baptized in the twofold liberative tradition of monks and peasants of Asia. Like its master, let it sit at the feet of Asian gurus not as an ecclesia docens (a teaching church) but as an ecclesia discens (a learning church), lost among the ‘religious poor’ of Asia, among the anawim who go to their gurus in search of the kingdom of holiness, justice, and peace. Unless the institutional church takes the plunge itself, it can hardly hope to be for Asians a readable word of revelation or a credible sign of salvation.

                With this recurrent “baptismal immersion,” the church will be progressively purged of its perennial sin of theological arrogance rooted in an unacceptable ethno-ecclesiocentricity that has decimated and still denigrates in many parts of Asia the rich cultural resources and religious wisdom of the multiple ancient traditions.  Immersed and purified, the “born-again” church of Asia will not only be enriched and Asian-inculturated, but prepared to be mission-driven by the power of God’s Sacred Spirit already active in Asia. Then the enlightened Asian gurus and awakened believers will be disposed and prepared to elevate the church to a position worthy of teaching fellow Asians. Then its message communicated in the tone of the Asian Jesus will be received with reverential gratitude. The revelatory message will be deemed profoundly salvific and the hearers converted to commit themselves to partner the church in the Kingdom-project of justice and peace for all peoples.

2.2.“Discipling” in relationship under the Asian Gurus. To be a church of Asia in solidarity with the believers and the marginalized of Asia calls for a period of “come, see and stay” (John 1:39, 46) when learning through storytelling and by doing actually takes place “sitting at the feet of the Asian guru,” in an Ashram or a rural school of “dsicipling.” It is a “discipling” into a way of seeing with new eyes so that we see as the gurus see and value with the heart of the Asian gurus. This way of seeing and valuing God’s presence in the Asian religiosity and wisdom traditions requires what is best described as an Asian sense of religious realism. Unless the mind and hearts of the church takes on this Asian sense of religious realism, the church of Asia will not be fully evangelized by the Asian gurus and the believing marginalized. With this paradigm shift in the way of learning, the church imbibe the Asian sense of religious realism and learn to become an Asianized church to the extent that its proclamation will be more readily acknowledged and received by gurus and believers of Asia as priceless rather than useless gems.

             The pedagogy of the Asian school of “discipling” focuses on relational and dialogic learning that requires as a prerequisite the need to build up a trusting relationship. In confidence, the esoteric religious knowledge is entrusted to the disciples. This dialogic

communication is never totally textual but oftentimes oral and more importantly, experiential in which the praxis of “learning by doing” takes precedence. The gurus gradually introduce the disciples to the ancient wisdom and the sacred power of the unseen world of the spirits. The experience of the sacred power occurs during rituals of healing, deliverance of persons from evil spells, and appeasing the spirits to restore harmony where there is communal rupture or disharmony between the different worlds.

            In this process of “discipling” this relational dialogue takes time and patience. It entails living for a long period of time with the guru, fully engaged in the everyday life and struggle of the village. Much emphasis is given to storytelling, punctuated by occasional silence (between the guru and disciple), the performance of household chores, culminating in the periodic celebration of communal festive activities and ritual celebrations. The prolonged participation in the life-world of the gurus becomes a process of gradual familiarity with the religiosity of the believers and greater identification with the aspirations and struggle of the believing communities.

              Only through this prolonged process of “discipling” is the church apprenticed to awaken the marginalized to the power latent within their religiosity. This awakening also gradually liberates the church from all unfounded suspicion and animosity toward the cultural and religious practices of the ancient local traditions. Only a liberated church readily manifests the power of a God of liberation which sets the believing communities free from all forms of marginalization that deprived them of equal access, sustainable livelihood and dignity. The involvement of the church is itself a powerful proclamation of the God of justice and equal access for all, the God to be experienced in sacred silence and solitude of human hearts and in the sacredness of nature and God’s creation.

3.Relationship of Reverential Beholding of the Other

The crossing over that calls for “baptismal immersion” in the stream of Asian cultures and religiosities makes possible a disposition that fosters a symmetrical relationship that accepts the cultural and religious other as sacred. Persons are made in God’s image (Gen. 1:26) due to the indwelling of the omnipresent God in all persons who ought to be regarded as sacred. As all persons are created sacred, believers of the other faiths are to be regarded by the church as co-pilgrims “in a common pilgrimage toward the ultimate goal, in relentless quest for the Absolute,” and that thus they are to be “sensitively attuned to the work of the Spirit in the resounding symphony of Asian communion.”

In contrast with the unequal violent relationship fostered by nation-states and the religious hierarchies, a symmetrical relationship better disposes the church to nurture a “reverential beholding” of the religious other in her/his otherness. This reverential beholding signifies the freedom of heart to be awe-inspired by the religious other and disposed the church to learn to respect and accept the totality of the other, including the otherness of the religio-cultural practices and beliefs because of the presence and actions of the indwelling of God’s sacred omnipresent Spirit.

This reverential beholding enjoins the church to be at home with the differences “if we are to recognize our religious neighbour as our Other instead of merely a paler version of ourselves.”  The church has the onus “to learn how to recognize and honor these differences and respond to their theological significance of religious differences.”

Let me illustrate this point. During the time of my “baptismal initiation,” I witnessed Garing, my shaman-guru “calling forth” the spirits and they come to him and converse with him, although I could not hear or see them. I witnessed on another occasion a conversation in full view of some of the villagers. In sharing with me the his own experience of being initiated into shamanhood, Garing mentioned how he was whisked off to a cave, welcomed with great hospitality by the family of spirits and apprenticed as a shaman. After the “baptismal immersion,” I have come to recognize what is radically unfamiliar and different in the beliefs and practices of Garing and yet learn to respect him as the Other. Respecting Garing as the religious other calls me to “let go” instead of wanting to “dominate” and “domesticate” his beliefs. This reverential beholding of the differences empties me of the desire to “hollow out” the differences in his beliefs and practices.

In addition, citing the experience in Buddhist-Christian dialogue, Fredericks unequivocally cautions:

What is “true and good” in Buddhism (to cite Nostra Aetate) is what Christians already know, from their own faith, to be true and good. The fulfillment theology of religions is necessary for the church, but also a strategy of control which succeeds in keeping the Otherness of Buddhism at bay. Buddhism’s Otherness, is, without a doubt, a danger to establish formulations of faith – but it also comes to us bearing a gift: the potential to transform faith. The fulfillment theology of religions, to the extent that it shelters faith from the Otherness of Dharma, also succeeds in keeping the Christians from appreciating the Buddhist Other as a neighbor.
        The church of Asia, after the “baptismal” experience, will have to allow for a dialogic space in which differences are gifts of a gratuitous Creator-God, so that we foster and nurture a sense of true solidarity with the religious other of the many religions, the majority of whom are the Asia poor. A dialogic relationship blossoms into a true solidarity that “creates a space in which difference can be recognized and even honored.” In the words of Pope John Paul II in Centissimus Annus, in no.22, true solidarity “creates a space for difference, pluralism, lack of consensus, and even opposition.”

In the space of true solidarity, the reverential beholding of the otherness of the other opens the church to behold and experience the Otherness of the God. This experience unfolds before the church the uniqueness of the otherness of God that is at once particular and universal. In Jesus, God in God’ otherness chose to become the God-Incarnate-in-the-world. By virtue of the incarnation, Jesus becomes God’s “Salvific Other” in Judaism and more specifically in Christianity. While incarnated, God remains in God’s Otherness, unbounded by any religion, so that God’s omnipresence in the diverse cultures, histories, societies and religions is considered a sacred presence always antecedent to the church. Present as Spirit, God in God’s otherness can be experienced in spirit especially in moments when we behold the otherness of other with great respect and reverence. The reverence accorded to the religious other is a recognition of the sacredness of the religious other as the dwelling place of God.

4.Crossing Over: Experience of God’ Liberative Presence
            In its evangelizing mission, the church must be audacious to cross over those violence-afflicted boundaries as God is discovered to manifest God’s transformational power in the midst of those survivors of everyday violence. Asia abounds in these grassroots experiences of “crossing over” such boundaries. A case in point of the “crossing over” of the ethnic divide is illustrated in the narrative below.
             In the height of the ethnic conflict involving political and ecclesial complexities and strifes in Sri Lanka, Aloysius Pieris shared his own experience and reflection of “crossing over” to the side of the victims. 
A group of us under the initiative of the Mission Animation Team (MAT) (with Fr Catalano as its main inspirer) went on a goodwill mission to Jaffna, in March 1984, five months after Black July. There we were welcomed with a hospitality that overwhelmed us. Bp Diogupullai who just seven years earlier expressed his strong disapproval of any talk of “liberation” in theological discourse (and even clashed with Fr Aloy at a seminar in 1975) was a completely ‘changed man’ after 1983. One must be a victim to understand liberation and the struggle for it. He gave Fr Aloy unlimited freedom to speak to his Seminarians! Jaffna changed us, too, and all of us returned different people. We too needed liberation by being exposed to the Tamil reality. Nothing like crossing over to the victim’s side, as the good Samaritan did in contrast with the Religious and the Priests!
            The transformational effect of the “crossing over” of the politically charged ethnic boundary on the participants is noticeable in the varied emotions woven into the tapestry of the narrative. Foremost is the feeling of “being surprised” by the overwhelming hospitality, the unexpected yet “manifest conversion” of Bishop Diogupullai, his round-about-turn in attitude that abounds in generosity and finally, the felt-sense of personal liberation from unfounded fears and ethnocentric prejudices. These expressed emotions only convinced the participants that God’s Spirit is at work “across and beyond” the ethnic divide, in the war-torn societies and violence-stricken bodies of the (mis)perceived “enemies” of the ruling government. 
            Closer home, the flood relief mission of late 2006 and early 2007 brought a group of Catholics to visit a multiracial village after the worst flood in more than 40 year in Johore, the southern most state in Peninsular Malaysia. What remained vividly imprinted in my memory was this particular visit to a Malay Muslim family. The aim of the visit was to understand how the church can best respond to the destruction and lost of household appliances. The family received us with gladness of heart and even served us afternoon tea, while humbly apologizing they did not have any biscuits or cakes to serve us. The surprise hospitality and humility shown by a family, reeling from the nightmare of the worst flood, left us impressed and convinced that the God of humankind is the foundation of this relationship and the bond of concern and hospitality between us (Eph 2:14). God’s sacred omnipresence is affectively experienced in the customs of hospitality which reciprocates the culture of concern based on the gospel injunction of the love of neighbor.

5.Crossing Over: Beholding God’s Salvific Presence
             If “crossing over” an ethnic divide has such profound transformational impact on the participants, what more the “crossing over” of the religious frontiers when Christians participate in the rites of other faiths? If we do participate, on what grounds do we justify our participation?
The legitimate grounds for participation are found in the teachings of the curial, Episcopal conference of Asia, and few of the papal documents on dialogue with the other faiths. Suffice to state at the onset that the Vatican II documents provides us the openness and encouragement with the arguments that the other faiths contain elements of “grace, truth, goodness and holiness” “not only in the hearts of peoples but also in the rites and customs of peoples, although all must be “healed, elevated, and completed.”

Reflecting on the multi-religiosities in Asia in the light of the teachings of Vatican II, the Asian Bishops recognize the other faiths as salvific channels by which God saves the other believers, for “the mystery of salvation reaches out to them, in a way known to God, through the invisible action of the Spirit of Christ.” This postulation has its basis in the Asian Bishops’ conviction of the “profound spiritual and ethical meaning and values” found in the other faiths. This conviction occasioned the Asian bishops to declare these faiths as “significant and positive elements in the economy of God’s design of salvation.” The curial document, Dialogue and Proclamation, in no, 29, premised salvation of other believers upon the “sincere practice of what is good in their own religious traditions and by following the dictates of their conscience.” Only then they respond positively to God’s invitation and receive salvation in Jesus Christ, even while they do not recognize or acknowledge him as their Saviour.”

Since these faiths are salvific channels, the 1991 papal encyclical, Redemptoris Missio, in no. 29 affirms that “the Spirit's presence and activity affect not only the individuals but also society and history, peoples, cultures and religions.” In no. 28, the papal document attributes God’s spirit to be “at the origin of the noble ideals and undertakings which benefit humanity on its journey through history” including the “marvelous foresight directs the course of the ages and renews the face of the earth." The same document hastens to add that God’s Spirit in the risen Christ "is now at work in human hearts through the strength of his Spirit, not only instilling a desire for the world to come but also thereby animating, purifying and reinforcing the noble aspirations which drive the human family to make its life one that is more human and to direct the whole earth to this end." As a result of this original inspiration, the document concludes that "every authentic prayer is prompted by the Holy Spirit, who is mysteriously present in every human heart.”

                   If God’s presence and God’s Spirit is active and operative in the other faiths, including in their rites and custom, with visible influence not just at the level of individuals but at the levels of their cultures and religions, then “crossing over” the religious boundaries with the specific intention of participating in their rituals also enables the church to gain a heightened “awareness of God’s presence and action outside its boundaries” and deepened the church’s “openness and attention to the mystery of God’s action in the other believers.” The profound transformational experience will open the church to God’s Spirit who will also transform the church in terms of its ecclesial members, the Christian cultures and religions.
     Ultimately, where God is encountered with a genuine heart characterized by an authentic desire for God, there too God’s Spirit will be experienced in the inspired communal prayers of the other faiths and bring about the metanoia in the attitudes, behavior and relationship of church participants. A church truly transformed is a church converted to accept God’s antecedent omnipresence in the other faiths, behold and experience God’s sacred presence and Spirit active and at work in the other faiths. When God becomes the common inspiration of all faiths, God’s Spirit makes if possible for humankind to aspire to the attainment of a life that is more just and humane and to direct the whole earth to a more sustainable life where there is greater dignity for all things, all persons and all beings.
                Narrating a “crossing over” experience of religious frontier is in order at this juncture. The participation of a group of 20 university students and graduates on January 7, 2011 in the Hindu rite called poojas (the weekly Friday worship) after the guided tour of the glass palace. The tour and worship was led by Guru Bhaggawan Sittar, an unassuming primary school teacher who was inspired by the Sun-god to construct the first-ever Hindu glass temple in the world which is known as the Arulmigu Rajakaliamman temple. Although many of us did not understand the worship conducted in Tamil, many of us sensed the inspiration behind the communal chants led by Guru B. Sittar.
                Many of us were touched by the sincere reverence of the Hindu devotees at the time of the blessings. In his homily, Guru B. Sittar demonstrated an unprecedented openness with his teachings on the person of Jesus Christ. During the worship, there is a sense of the scent of sacredness, exuding as if were from the believers’ hearts, ascending on high, riding on the waves of smoke from the burnt incense, a sight reminiscent of the thick clouds (1 Kg. 8:10-13) in the temple that signified Yahweh’s sacred presence. Before such omnipresent God, one can only bow down and bend low and admit that every authentic prayer is inspired by God’s Spirit and the inherent goodness, holiness and truthfulness in the other faiths is unmistakably sustained by God’s sacred presence.

6.Crossing Over: Awakening of the poor
           A church that is evangelized by the gurus and converted by the Omnipresent is missioned by God’s Spirit to cross over to the violent world of the marginalized. This crossing over enables the church to experience the sacred power of God aglow in the hearth of the multi-religiosities of the excluded teeming masses of Asia. Once the glow is ignited by the religious fire of the awakened poor, the multi-religiosities at the margin unleash a sacred power that implodes the liberative potential of the marginalized. Thus awakened, the poor take up the liberative role of negotiating for a more sustainable livelihood with the powers that be. Mindful of this role, Pieris argues that awakening is the truth about evangelization in Asia.
This is the truth about evangelization that the local church in Asia finds hardest to accept. To awaken the consciousness of the poor to their unique liberative role in the totally new order God is about to usher in – this is how I have already defined evangelization – is the inalienable task of the poor already awakened. Jesus was the first evangelizer – poor but fully conscious of his part in the war against mammon with all its principalities and powers.

          An illustration will substantiate this awakening. In 1985, the Karens of the Maelid and neighboring villages had to recourse to their power inherent in their religiosity due to the imminent destruction of their watershed occasioned by the mining industry.  Negotiation has failed and they resorted to sacred power in their indigenous religiosity.  They invoked the Absolute Being through a ritual. The rituals enabled the people to gain access to Ta Thi Ta Tau (Absolute Being) and made the power “beyond” immanent. Even though the negotiation with the mining company has reached a stalemate, the rituals has given the Karen of the 10 villagers an experience of a “power within,” derived from the power beyond to negotiate the contestations and conflicts they encountered. In 1987, the extractive industry ceased its operation due to heavy losses, ranging from some workers becoming sick, others killed in a landslide and the unexplainable disappearance of the minerals. The villagers attributed the disappearance of the minerals to the power of the Absolute Being.

            Amongst the Lahu Nyi hilltribe of Northern Chiangmai is a ritual in which they have a performative utterance known as “Kusha-yalo-wei” which denotes that “God has come down.” This describes the descent of the power from on high amongst a violated people who invokes on the Creator or God.  It is through such belief and ritual-invocation that the indigenous villagers gained access to the “power beyond” so that God’s sacred power descends on the community and becomes the liberating power of the community. This power descends on the people, empowers them in their struggle, so that a “power beyond” become a “power within” that translates into a “power over” the mining company and the villagers prevented the destruction of their watershed area, a forestland which is so vital for a more sustainable livelihood in the rural villages. 
             The experience of the Karen and the Lahu Nyi reminds us of how the federated tribes of Israel called upon the power of their tribal deity, Yahweh whose sacred power descended upon them and manifested the power of Yahweh through the liberative leadership of Moses (Ex 3ff). The sacred “power beyond” became the sacred “power within” for the liberative struggle of Israelites for freedom from oppression.

7.Crossing Over: Promoting Sacred Sustainability
Given the present ecological crisis and the unprecedented climate change reported in the media, it is important for the church to “cross over” to the indigenous homeland and learn from the renowned shamans that the indwelling spirits of nature and culture have made all things, all spaces and all persons sacred. Having learnt and imbibed this religious sense of sacredness, the shamans enjoins the church of Asia to inculcate a sense of the sacred of the cosmos and the anthoropos by communicating and educating the believers in Asia that the sacred power of the Creative ruah is at work through all shamanic spirits indwelling in creation. By its creative power, the indwelling Ruah suffuses all of God’s creation with divine grandeur and glorious splendor, rendering all things, all beings and all spaces in God’s creation sacred. The church has to convince all believers that science, technology and global capitalism have failed to deliver and life is unsustainable for the human and earth communities. Only when all things, persons and spaces are respected as sacred is life sustainable for all of God’s creation. The church needs to uphold and promote this foundational sense of the ontological sacredness of everything and everyone in creation in its evangelizing mission in order to ensure the sustainability of life in a world where persons are no longer descecrated and the earth plundered as exploitable resources. 

The promotion of sacred sustainability paves the way for the church to network with people of the different faiths and cultures, and collaborate with religious leaders and wisdom-figures, including the indigenous shamans of great moral integrity and profound wisdom, to gain access to the sacred power beyond through communal ritual celebrations. The “power beyond” descends and becomes the “power within” which the ritual invocations subsequently transform into “power with and for” the liberative struggle of the human and the earth communities for greater sustainable livelihood based on sacred sustainability. 

Along with the inculcation of the sacredness of all things, beings and spaces, the church is challenged to incessantly denounce the godless desecration of all resources by the death-dealing forces of global capitalism that sacrifice the global underclass and the earth on the altar of lust and greed enshrined in the hearts of the wicked whose idolatrous addiction to the idols of profit, prestige and pleasure have hardened them to the cries of the marginalized for God’s saving justice and human dignity. At the same time, in the unmasking of the idolatrous hearts, it is the church’s mission to free their hearts and open them to behold a sense of the sacred “within” and “beyond” so that they are transformed by the sacred power of God. Only with an enlightened realization and a transformative felt-experience of the sacred can the liberated hearts receive the free offer of grace that wins them over as ardent advocators of sacred sustainability that ensure the future of the cosmos and anthropos. Indeed, where natural and human resources have been commoditized and wantonly desecrated by global capitalism, the sacred power mediated through ritual celebrations continue to recreate all desecrated spaces and persons, so that the earth and all of God’s creation are suffused with the great sacred power of God.

8.Mission As Prophetic Defense
Once the church has been evangelized by the gurus and the awakened poor of Asia, the church will be accorded the dignity of an ecclesia docens (teaching church). Then the church’s prophetic defense of the right and freedom of all peoples of the many cultures and religions to the Word of God that reveals the true nature of humankind in relation to God will be well received and heard.

Given the offensiveness of unethical proselytization in Asia and its adverse reaction by the religious leaders of the other faiths, this evangelizing mission of the church of Asia is thus more nuanced and contextualized in Asia.  The question is: how does the church of Asia “continue her prophetic defense of right and freedom of peoples to the word of God since it is duty-bound to proclaim the word that saves? “Indeed seeking out the most” effective ways of proclaiming that word, even at the risk of persecution, is the way forward.

The Asian bishops articulated a theological framework with valuable insights that befits this theological reflection on mission of the Asian church as prophetic defense of everyone’s right to the saving word.

First, it is pertinent to recognize that the Spirit of God and of Christ is active outside the church. Changing religious allegiance, baptism and membership in the church “depends solely on God’s internal call and the person’s free decision.” The church of Asia knows that conversion is not the only way by which God saves since the free offer of God’s salvific grace to those outside the church or “God’s ways are mysterious and unfathomable, and no one can dictate the direction of divine grace.” Hence, it is not overstating the fact that todate, God’s many ways still remain unknown to the church.

It has been recognized since the time of the apostolic Church, and stated clearly again by the Second Vatican Council, that the Spirit of Christ is active outside the bounds of the visible Church. God’s saving grace is not limited to members of the Church, but is offered to every person. God’s grace may lead some to accept baptism and enter the Church, but it cannot be presumed that this must always be the case. God’s ways are mysterious and unfathomable, and no one can dictate the direction of divine grace (BIRA II, art.12).

The 1987 FABC Theological Advisory Committee’s paper entitled Theses on Interreligious Dialogue offers further insights. In Thesis 2 this document has described the rationale for the church’s mission of proclamation and dialogue as inseparable.

While proclamation is the expression of its awareness of being in mission, dialogue is the expression of its awareness of God’s presence and action outside its boundaries… Proclamation is the affirmation of its awareness to God’s action in oneself. Dialogue is the openness and attention to the mystery of God’s action in the other believers. It is a perspective of faith that we cannot speak of one without the other. Dialogue is the openness and attention to the mystery of God’s action in the other believers. It is a perspective of faith that we cannot speak of one without the other. (Theses on Interreligious Dialogue, art.6.5).

The same thesis urged the need for the openness to accept the other religions as Gods’ salvific ways for believers of other faiths. The fruits of the Spirit are obviously identifiable in the believer of other faiths.

Its experience of the other religions has led the Church in Asia to this positive appreciation of their role in the divine economy of salvation … based on the fruits of the Spirit perceived in the lives of the other religions’ believers: a sense of the sacred, a commitment to the pursuit of fullness, a thirst for self-realization, a taste for prayer and commitment, a desire for self-renunciation, a struggle for justice, an urge to basic human goodness, an involvement in service, a total surrender of the self to God, and an attachment to the transcendent in their symbols, rituals and life itself, though human weakness and sin are not absent.

         The Asian Church is convinced that God’s salvific for humanity is one for all peoples and the role of the Church is to discern and urges all believers to bring about the fullness of God’s kingdom when God is over all, through all and all in all.

This positive appreciation is further rooted in the conviction of faith that God’s plan of salvation for humanity is one and reaches out to all peoples; it is the kingdom of God through which God seeks to reconcile all things in Godself in Jesus Christ. The Church is a sacrament of this mystery – a symbolic realization that is on mission towards its fulfillment (LG1:5; cf BIRA IV/2). It is an integral part of this mission to discern the action of God in peoples in order to lead them to fulfillment. Dialogue is the only way in which this can be done, respectful both of God’s presence and action and of the freedom of conscience of the believers of other religions (cf. LG 10-12; Ecclesiae Sanctai , 41-42; Redemptoris Hominis, 11-12)

Within this theological framework, the word of God reveals in Jesus is about the salvific message that humankind can only be saved by following the dictates of their conscience and sincere practice of “a sense of the sacred, a commitment to the pursuit of fullness, a thirst for self-realization, a taste for prayer and commitment, a desire for self-renunciation, a struggle for justice, an urge to basic human goodness, an involvement in service, a total surrender of the self to God, and an attachment to the transcendent in their symbols, rituals and life itself” The word of God reminds believers that the noble aims of the different religions is only achievable in the strength of God’s Spirit, not by sheer human efforts alone. Christ is an exemplar par excellence of one who does God’s will and attained God’s noble dreams for humankind and God’s creation through the power of God.

In today’s context, the word of God reveals in Jesus is about the salvific message that humankind can only be saved when all become fully human and like Christ (hence in the words of FABC V, art. 4.1, “Christlike, live like him … and do his deeds by the power of his grace”), when we walk the Christ’s way of doing God’s will for the sacred sustainability of the earth and human communities, when we embrace/embody Christ’s truth - with God and God’s omnipresence in all hearts, all spaces, and al beings, life on earth becomes sacred and sustainable, and finally lead lives of fullness and wholeness in union with God, together with all of God’s peoples, biospecies and creation. In Jesus, humankind is saved when everyone realized what it means to have God with us and within us. In this way, as humans “im-planeted” in creation, humankind attain the full flourishing of being the daughters and sons of God, together with believers of all faiths, in the sacred power of God’s omnipresent Spirit.

This does not preclude that the attainment of full flourishing in the church is made possible through baptism and incorporation into the Body of Christ. It is Christ who made in possible for such fullness of life or total flourishing because the church proclaims that Jesus is not only the salvific message but the one who saves through the message. Yet it must be maintained in Asia, that outside the bounds of the church, the same attainment is accomplished by God’s unfathomable Spirit whose power pulsates in the hearts of all believers, sustaining all their Christlike practices so that the end-realization of sacred sustainability is when God finally reconciles all persons, all spaces and all beings in God, in ways unknown to humankind and the church, but only known to God alone. 


With the rapid changes in our times, it is timely to reconceptualize approaches that make the church’s evangelizing mission more effective. In the multi-religiosities of Asia, the church has to earn its place as ecclesia docens (a teaching church) by first being ecclesia discens (a learning church), subjected to a trying apprenticeship in which the ecclesia discerns becomes “discipled” by the Asian gurus and the awakened poor. Once evangelized, the church of Asia becomes a readable word of revelation and a credible sign of salvation because it manifests the all expansive and embracing kingdom of God. This manifestation is not so much in words as in the power and authority of its saving guru Jesus who once lived and taught in Asia. As a teaching church, its members are so “overpowered by God’s Spirit” as to be enabled to behold the religious other of Asia with great reverence and respect the otherness of the other in their dignity as persons inviolable and beliefs as tenets incongruent because of the observable differences.
Such reverential beholding enables the church to behold, discover and announce God’s sacred omnipresence already active across the ethic and religious frontiers. The omnipresent God becomes the foundational grace that makes possible the co-pilgrimage on earth as believers of the different faiths, and, the concerted partnership that collaborates with God in the gradual and ultimate transformation of humankind in the likeness of God and the earth in the creative largesse of heart of God. Above all, God’s omnipresence that pulsates through the entire creation has rendered all spaces, persons and being sacred. This inviolable sacredness at the deepest depth of all cultures and nature is what renders sustainability of life possible for the earth and human communities. The promotion of sacred sustainability is foundational to the evangelizing mission of the church for the “survivalibility” of the human and earth communities.  Finally, what makes the church effective in its prophetic defense of humankind’s right to the saving word is to announce that humankind is saved when all live and act like Christ who has shown humankind the way, the truth and the life when the earth and human communities attain total sacred sustainability when God becomes the God in all, over all and all in all.   
A Theological Reflection on the Uprising and Tsunami

I am aware of their sufferings” (Ex 3:7) The whole creation has been groaning in
one great act of giving birth.” (Rom 8:22)

Jojo M. Fung, SJ


           The contagious unrest in the Middle East and the subsequent tsunami after the earthquake of 8.9 magnitude in Japan came as a surprise to many observers around the world. Yet the wind of change in the Middle East and the sweep of the tsunami water have been significant signs of the times that warrant a theological reflection on culture and nature.
           The first section of this paper will be a theological reflection of the grievances of the heart and groaning of the earth in the light of the social teachings of the church. A further theological reflection has to be done on the nexus between culture and nature, with human and environmental ecology as the meeting point. This reflection in the light of the Catholic and papal social teachings will be articulate in the second section. Yet both events point to the failure on the part of the autocracy and humankind in what can be described as a failure in a “dialogic reverence” of the sacredness of humankind and creation. This “dialogic reverence” will be enunciated further in the third section.
1.Swept by the Grievances of the hearts and Groaning of the Earth
1.1.Grievances of the hearts. The Middle East uprising has been reported with different labels, from grass-root democracy movements to sand storms of revolution and anti-government demonstrations/protests, democratic wave, pro-democracy demonstrations, popular movements and even rebels in the case of Libya. Most of the countries in the Middle East (Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain and Iran) suffer from reasonably high rate of unemployment, the highest being Egypt among the young who are under-25, at 49.3%, Iran at 14.6%, Libya at 14% and Yemen at 10-14 %. At 45 % Yemen commands a lead in terms of the highest majority of those living below the poverty line, with Egypt in the second place at 20% and Tunisia in the third at 15 %. Yemen has the lowest per capita income of all the countries caught up in the wind of change.
   If the statistics is any indication at all, the grinding poverty, unemployment, lack of access and the unfulfilled aspirations of the governed, especially among the young has occasioned the mounting grievances in the hearts of many protestors. Politically the uprising signals the near or total collapse of the processes of political dialogue whence the legitimate demands of the citizens were unheeded by the ruling power. Little wonder the Egyptian protests, which saw Muslims and Christians acting concertedly, call for democracy and constitutional reforms that guaranteed greater freedom to each individual. The country’s young people poured into the Tahrir Square, demanding that their aspirations for justice, freedom, peace and equality be fulfilled by the new government in the post Mubarak era. In Libya the young people behind the unrest demanded “something that are just” such as having “a house, a better salary, a job” which the government has the resources to satisfy but failed to. Amidst such turmoil and transition, forms of reconciliation have been advocated that allow the people to have what is just.
           The need for a just political order based on constitutional reform to bring about democratic governance has been a clarion call from the protestors. Such aspirations of the human hearts find a ready resonance in the CSDC or Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church. CSDC No. 406 clearly explains that “the Church values the democratic system in as much as it ensures the participation of citizens in making political choices, guarantees the governed the possibility both of electing and holding them accountable those who govern them, and of replacing them through peaceful means when appropriate.” In no. 408, the CSDC is emphatic that the “political authority is accountable to the people” because “those who govern have the obligation to answer to those governed” and “the obligation on the part of those elected to give an accounting of their work – which is guaranteed by respecting electoral terms – is a constitutive element of democratic representation.” More so, as affirmed in no. 394, the political authority of the State “must always be exercised within the limits of morality and on behalf of the dynamically conceived common good” which “in turn has God for its first source and final end,” according to no. 396.

               In a just democratic order, the elected are to “put power into practice as service” so that the elected work for the “common good, and not prestige or the gaining of personal advantages, as the true goal” of their public offices. Furthermore, “authentic democracy is possible only in a State ruled by law, and on the basis of a correct conception of the human person” wherein there persons are respected “through the creation of structures of participation and shared responsibility.” An authentic and just democracy calls for a consensus on certain essential values as stated in no. 407: “the dignity of every human person, the respect of human rights, commitment to the common good as the purpose of guiding criterion for political life.” To this must be added, the independence of the judiciary, the rule of law, accountability and transparency in terms of management of the nation’s resources, care for the environment, just policies for the minorities, promotion of the democratic space for civil society, freedom for the media and religious freedom.

               Given the demographic presence of cultural and religious minorities, a just and democratic governance must promote their collective rights.  CSDC, no. 387 states that “minorities have the right to maintain their cultures, including their languages, and to maintain their religious beliefs, including worship services.” At the same time, “a minority group has the duty to promote the freedom and dignity of each one of its members and to respect the decisions of each one, even if someone were to decide to adopt the majority culture.”  A just political order will uphold the religious freedom of the minorities because the CST in no. 421 advocates that “the dignity of the person and the nature of the quest for God require that all men and women should be free from every restraint in the area of religion. Society and the State must not force a person to act against her/his conscience or prevent her/him from acting in conformity with it. Religious freedom is not a moral license to adhere to error, nor as an implicit right to error.” In no. 422, the CST further states that “the right to religious freedom must be recognized in the juridical order and sanctioned as a civil right; nonetheless, it is not of itself just an unlimited right.”

             When the government becomes dictatorial and dismissive of the demands of the governed for genuine reforms, CSDC no. 385 reminds the government of the day that the governed are not “a shapeless multitude, an inert mass to be manipulated and exploited, but a group of persons, to whom – “at her/his proper place and in her/his own way – express its own political sentiments and to bring them to bear positively on the common good.” The ultimate recommendation of CSDC 395 is that the governed who “transfers the exercise of sovereignty to those whom it freely elects as its representative” reserves the prerogative “in replacing them when they do not fulfill their functions satisfactorily.”

1.2.Groaning of the earth.
An aggrieved earth has devastated the northeastern part of Japan, especially the central part of the town of Minami-Sanrikucho in Miyagi Perfecture. Over 20,000 people are reported missing in the Japan quake and tsunami with an estimated death toll that was certain to exceed 10,000 and more than 215,000 huddled in emergency shelters. The quake and its tectonic shift resulted from the “thrust faulting” when a colossal earthquake provided a sudden jolt to the Pacific plate which accelerated its push under a far western wedge of the North America plate which is already doing so at the rate of about 83mm per year. This was the worst tsunami after the 2004 Acheh tsunami caused by a 9.1 magnitude quake that claimed an estimated 228,000 lives.
                 The impact of profit-driven development and economics on the ecological wellbeing of planet earth is not without its consequences, albeit unforeseen, especially in terms of a rupture of the harmonious relationship between the earth and humankind. The intensity of such rupture alerted Pope Benedict XVI to call for “further and deeper reflection on the meaning of the economy and its goals, as well as a profound and far-sighted revision of the current model of development, so as to correct its dysfunctions and deviations. This is demanded, in any case, by the earth's state of ecological health; above all it is required by the cultural and moral crisis of humankind, the symptoms of which have been evident for some time all over the world.” There is no denying that the current rupture is occasioned by what the Pope alluded to as an exploitative worldview that the world and humans are viewed “as the result of mere chance or evolutionary determinism” that our sense of responsibility wane markedly to the extent that nature is considered “a heap of scattered refuse” because humankind has consistently failed miserably to decipher what the Pope explains as a “grammar” in nature which “sets forth ends and criteria for its wise use, not its reckless exploitation.”

               The urgency for the exercise of global responsible stewardship is expressed. The Pope urged that competent authorities “make every effort to ensure that the economic and social costs of using up shared environmental resources are recognized with transparency and fully borne by those who incur them, not by other peoples or future generations: the protection of the environment, of resources and of the climate obliges all international leaders to act jointly and to show a readiness to work in good faith, respecting the law and promoting solidarity with the weakest regions of the planet.” He hastened to add that “one of the greatest challenges facing the economy is to achieve the most efficient use — not abuse — of natural resources, based on a realization that the notion of “efficiency” is not value-free.”
  Pope Benedict urges for greater intergenerational eco-sensitivity through considering the environment as “God's gift to everyone and in our use of it we have a responsibility towards the poor, towards future generations and towards humanity as a whole.” Again the Pope reiterated the involvement of the young in facing these ruptures: “if they are to be faced adequately, then everyone must responsibly recognize the impact they will have on future generations, particularly on the many young people in the poorer nations, who “ask to assume their active part in the construction of a better world.” This is based on a fundamental conviction that “on this earth there is room for everyone: here the entire human family must find the resources to live with dignity, through the help of nature itself— God's gift to his children — and through hard work and creativity.”
              In the same breath, the Pope calls for a contemplative attitude in which the believer recognizes in nature “the wonderful result of God's creative activity, which we may use responsibly to satisfy our legitimate needs, material or otherwise, while respecting the intrinsic balance of creation.” Moreover, nature is “a gift of the Creator who has given it an inbuilt order, enabling wo/man to draw from it the principles needed in order “to till it and keep it” (Gen 2:15).

II. Ecology as Nexus between Culture and Nature
           In citing the example of desertification and human impoverishment, the Pope explains the nexus between culture and nature.

Desertification and the decline in productivity in some agricultural areas are also the result of impoverishment and underdevelopment among their inhabitants. When incentives are offered for their economic and cultural development, nature itself is protected. The hoarding of resources, especially water, can generate serious conflicts among the peoples involved.

         His conclusion is on the nexus between culture and nature is simply this: “Nature, especially in our time, is so integrated into the dynamics of society and culture that by now it hardly constitutes an independent variable.” In carrying through his argument, the Pope believes that “every violation of solidarity and civic friendship harms the environment, just as environmental deterioration in turn upsets relations in society” and conversely “the deterioration of nature is in fact closely connected to the culture that shapes human coexistence: when “human ecology” is respected within society, environmental ecology also benefits.”
          The nexus of culture and nature hinges on what the Pope describes as the indivisible book of nature.
The book of nature is one and indivisible: it takes in not only the environment but also life, sexuality, marriage, the family, social relations: in a word, integral human development. Our duties towards the environment are linked to our duties towards the human person, considered in her/himself and in relation to others. It would be wrong to uphold one set of duties while trampling on the other. Herein lies a grave contradiction in our mentality and practice today: one which demeans the person, disrupts the environment and damages society.
          In this indivisible nexus between culture and nature, what is needed is a reaffirmation  and the strengthening of that “covenant between human beings and the environment, which should mirror the creative love of God, from whom we come and towards whom we are journeying.”

III. A New Era of “Dialogic Reverence”
                Reflecting prayerfully on the grievances of human hearts and the groaning of the earth, there is but one common playground for the earth and humankind, call it for now the “dialogic reverence” to be rendered to the Lord of Creation and humankind whose omnipresence in humankind and creation has ”sacralized” (for want of a better word) the earth and humankind.

             Dialogic reverence has its anthropological and theological bases in the dialogic relationship amongst humankind. In this relationship, the Other is to be regarded “as our ‘neighbour,’ ‘a helper’ (cf. Gen.2:18-20), to be made a sharer, on par with ourselves, in the banquet of life to which all are equally invited by God.” The Other is “not only a human being with her or his own rights and a fundamental equality with everybody else, but becomes the image of God the Father, redeemed by the blood of Jesus Christ and placed under the permanent action of the Holy Spirit.” The Other is truly an “earthen vessel” (          ), suffused with God’s omnipresence and rightly so, the temple of God’s indwelling Spirit (           ). This dialogic reverence calls for a chose for dialogic relationship rather than barbarity.

When any political authority fails to respond adequately to the genuine aspirations of the human hearts, it has failed to render the “dialogic reverence” due to the Other and ultimately to God. Hence the measure by which dialogic irreverence is meted out to the citizens is equally the measure by which political authority gradually de-legitimizes itself, divests itself of its moral authority and incapacitates its ability to govern justly.

               In relation to the earth, dialogic reverence grounds its basis in the covenant God entered with humankind through Noah (Gen 9:12-17).Henceforth, humankind is exhorted to live in harmony with God’ creation which entails a dialogic relationship in which the embodiment and manifestation of dialogic reverence to all of God’s creation - “every living thing that is found on the earth” (Gen. 9:17) is of paramount importance for the sustaining the wellbeing of environmental ecology.  This dialogic reverence for creation is akin to the description of a group of scientists, including 32 Nobel-Prize-winners, in a petition sent to a meeting of spiritual leaders from 83 countries. With frankness and clarity, they acknowledged that “as scientists, many of us have had profound experiences of awe and reverence before the universe. We understand that what is regarded as sacred is more likely to be treated with care and respect.”
              The rupture of this dialogue relationship between the earth and humankind is the disharmony and dissonance that resulted in the lamentable destruction and untimely death in the aftermath of the quake and tsunami. In this uncalled-for suffering, humankind is confronted with the naked truth about the ultimate meaning of existence on earth. May this of “questioning” and “doubting” brings about the necessary conversion that liberates many hearts from that “dialogic irreverence” that desecrates God’s creation based on an sacrilegious and exploitative relationship with the earth.


            The grievance of the hearts and the groaning of the earth are theological moments when God “bursts into” human consciousness with the profound truths about who we are to one another and what the earth is to humankind.  In hearts whence basic aspirations are left unheeded and unfulfilled, the power of uprising is unleashed that breaks down cultural and religious barriers and topples autocracy, paving the way for just democratic governance. In an aggrieved planet that groans and moans in aches of birthpang, ruptures need to be harmonized to ensure sustainability in the humankind-earth relationship. The grievances and groaning  alludes to the need for dialogic reverence amongst humankind and before God’s creation to ensure the sustainability of just democratic rule and of our planetary home earth.


See article”Arab and Middle East Uprising: A Map of the countries Affected by the Revolution” posted on 24/02/2011. [On-line] Available from
2 Cardinal Antonios Naguib, the Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria told reporters at the press conference tht the change of government in Egypt was driven by the dreams of the young people expressing “their desires for values like justice, freedom, peace and equality.” (Herald, Vol. 18, no. 8, March 6, 2011:1)
3 A remark made by Bishop Govanni Martinelli, the apostolic vicar of Tripoli, Libya. (Herald, Vol. 18, no. 8, March 6, 2011:1)
4 A paraphrase of Bishop Govanni Martinelli’s comment which said that the Catholic Church, which represents a tiny minority in Libya, wanted above all a “form of reconciliation that allows the Libyan people to have what is just.” (Herald, Vol. 18, no. 8, March 6, 2011:1)
5 See Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church (Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2004) 229. [Henceforth referred to as CSDC) 
6 In fact, CSDC no. 384 states that “the human person is the foundation and purpose of political life.” See CSDC, op. cit. 217.
7. Ibid. 230.
Ibid.223-4. CDSC no. 396 insists that this political order “has no existence except in God; cut off from God it must necessarily disintegrate.”
Ibid. no. 410: 231.
John Paul II, Encyclical Letter Evangelium Vitae, 56: AAS 87 (1995), 464; cf John Paul II, Message of the 2001 Word Day of Peace, 19: AAS 93 (2001), 244; also see CDSC,  no.406:227.
CSDC, op. cit., 229.
Ibid. 218-9.
Cf. SECOND VATICAN COUNCIL, Declaration Dignitatis Humanae, 3: AAS 58 (1966), 931-932.
See Catechism of the Catholic Church, 2105.
Pius XII, Christmas Radio Message of 24 December 1944: AAS 37 (1945), 13; also see CSDC no. 385:218. Echoing the social teachings, Jean Baudrillard points out that the “la massa” has to be regarded “always as a potential energy, a reservoir of the social and of social energy; today a mute referent, tomorrow, when they speak up and cease to be the “silent majority,” a protagonist of history… with a claim to subjecthood.” See Jean Baudrillard, In the Shadows of the silent Majorities….or the end of the social and others essays. Trans. P. Foss, P. Patten & J. Johnston (New York: Semiotext(e), 1983) 2, 107.
See Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church (Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2004) 218. [Henceforth referred to as CSDC) 
Ibid. 223.
The Star, 14 March, 2011: 1, W35
See Papal Encyclical, Caritas et veritate, Section 4, no. 48.
Ibid., section 4, no. 50.
Ibid., section 4, no. 51.
Ibid., section 4, no. 50. Emphasis is mine.
Ibid., section 4, no. 51.
See John Paull II, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, no. 30.
John Moore, SJ ““Caritas in Veritate”: An Ecological Perspective,” JCTR Bulletin, no. 85 (2010):25.
Asian Horizon Theology of Sacred Sustainability by Jojo Fung.pdf

Please click on the above link in order to read Jojo’s third article.